International Motion Time Measurement Development_Ethical Work Design
International Motion Time Measurement Development_Ethical Work Design

PTS History

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A time standard for a job or an operation may be established by time study, by work sampling, or by the use of predetermined times.


Predetermined time standards (PTS) are advanced techniques which aim at defining the time needed for the performance of various operations by derivation from preset standards of time for various motions and not by direct observation and measurement. They are not normally considered suitable for the trainee to use until he has gained a real understanding of and considerable experience in work study practice.


Definition


A predetermined time standard is a work measurement technique whereby times established for basic human motions classified according to the nature of the motion and the conditions under which it is made is used to build up the time for a job at a defined level of performance.


Definition


A predetermined time standard is a work measurement technique whereby times established for basic human motions classified according to the nature of the motion and the conditions under which it is made is used to build up the time for a job at a defined level of performance.


Advantages of pre-determined time systems


PTS systems offer a number of advantages over stop watch time study


1. With PTS one time is indicated for a given motion, irrespective of where such a motion is performed. In stop watch study it is not so much as a sequence of motions making up an operation is timed.


2. Timing by direct observation and rating can sometimes lead to inconsistency. A PT system avoids both rating and direct observation and hence can lead to more consistency in setting standard times.


3. Since the times for the various operations can be derived from standard time tables, it is possible to define the standard time for a given operation even before production begins and often while the process is still at the desi0gn stage. This allows the work study man to change the layout and design of the workplace and of the necessary jigs and fixtures in such a way that the optimum production time is achieved.


4. It is also possible before starting the operation to draw up an estimate of the cost of production, and this could be valuable for budgeting.


To summarize they are not too difficult to apply and can be less time consuming than other methods when time standards are determined. They are particularly useful for very short repetitive time cycles such as assembly work in the electronics industry.


The improvement of work should precede the setting of work standards. Obviously, if changes are made in the method of performing an operation, the time required for the performance will be changed.


Once the improved method is found, it should be standardized and all workers should be trained in using the improved method.


Managers use time standards to answer a number of important questions:


1. What is the time required for each operation in the scheduling of production?
2. How can production in one department, or at one machine be balanced with other department and machine in the plant?
3. How can the company develop a solid basis or a standard cost accounting system?
4. What amount of time will a job take for the purpose of estimating the price to place in a bid?
5. What basis is best for an incentive system?


The original method of setting time standards time standards is F W Taylor’s procedure of using a stopwatch to time a representative man actually working on a given job.


Because stopwatch time study has received considerable criticism, other methods of setting standards have been developed. Several of these (methods-time measurement, work factor, basic motion time study) make use of catalogues of motions, with a table of time values for each. The catalogues contain data that have been developed thorough detailed research in laboratories. They are the basis fro setting time standards without the use of a stopwatch.


Methods Time Measurement , MTM

• Developed by Maynard, Stregemarten, and Schwab in 1948.

• A procedure that analyses manual operations or methods into basic motions needed to perform it, and assigns each a pre-determined time based on the motion and environmental conditions.

• MTM-1, MTM-2, MTM-3, MTM-SAM, MTM-UAS, MTM-MEK, MTM-HWD, MTM-SD, MTM-Log, ...

MOST 

• Maynard Operation Sequence Technique MOST Developed in 1980 by Kjell Zandin

   establishes standards at least 5 times faster than MTM-1, w/little if any sacrifice in accuracy

  Concentrates on the movements of objects.

Predetermined Time Standards System, PTSS

• PTSS was developed by Fred Meyers to provide a time system that was quick to learn and easy to apply.

Work Factor

Work factor recognizes six definite body members and provides motion times for each: Finger or hand, arm, fore arm, swivel, trunk, foot and leg.